Latest WAEC Mathematics Syllabus For Waec 2023

Is waec mathematics syllabus 2024 out?  How can i read and prepare for 2024 waec? Do i really need waec syllabus 2023 to prepare for my waec? where can i download waec mathematics syllabus PDF?  I know this question is in your mind for a very long time because you want to come out with flying color. Well your at the right place today, i will break everything down for you and give you waec mathematics general guides.

The reason why must of  waec candidate fail woefully in their exam is inadequate preparations’ that is not covering of syllabus before going into the exam hall.

How To Read And Prepare For 2023 Waec Exam 

The truth is that using expo or runs to pass your waec always affects in the future, so try and prepare well by yourself and come  and come out with good grades. How can i prepare well?

  • Make use of waec syllabus 2023.
  • Use waec recommend textbooks.
  • Study with Waec past questions.
  • Attend private lesson.

With the above, making A’s is assured.

Why will i make use of waec mathematics syllabus 2023

I know some of you will ask this kind of question, well lemme tell you. The waec syllabus is a direct expo of what your to expect in the coming 2023 waec. So instead of searching for expo every time, why not prepare well by availing yourself with the necessary material to excel.  I have compiled for you the syllabus of some major subjects in waec for candidate preparing for May/June, Jan/Fab and Nov/Dec WASSCE.


The aims of the syllabus are to test candidates’:

  •  mathematical competency and computational skills;
  • understanding of mathematical concepts and their relationship to the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills for everyday living in the global world;
  •  ability to translate problems into mathematical language and solve them using appropriate methods;
  • ability to be accurate to a degree relevant to the problem at hand;
  •  logical, abstract and precise thinking.This syllabus is not intended to be used as a teaching syllabus. Teachers are advised to use their own National teaching syllabuses or curricular for that purpose.


There will be two papers, Papers 1 and 2, both of which must be taken.

PAPER 1: will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions, drawn from the common areas of the syllabus, to be answered in 1½ hours for 50 marks.

PAPER 2: will consist of thirteen essay questions in two sections – Sections A and B, to be answered in 2½ hours for 100 marks. Candidates will be required to answer ten questions in all.

Section A – Will consist of five compulsory questions, elementary in nature carrying a total of 40 marks. The questions will be drawn from the common areas of the syllabus.

Section B – will consist of eight questions of greater length and difficulty. The questions shall include a maximum of two which shall be drawn from parts of the syllabuses which may not be peculiar to candidates’ home countries. Candida

waec syllabus 2019/2020

tes will be expected to answer five questions for 60 marks.


The topics, contents and notes are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set. The notes are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of illustrations/limitations.



( a ) Number bases

( i ) conversion of numbers from one base to another
( ii ) Basic operations on number bases. Example conversion from one base
to base 10 and vice versa, Conversion from one base to another base. Addition, subtraction and multiplication of number bases.

(b) Modular Arithmetic

(i) Concept of Modulo Arithmetic.
(ii) Addition, subtraction and
multiplication operations in
modulo arithmetic.
(iii) Application to daily life
Interpretation of modulo
arithmetic e.g.
6 + 4 = k(mod7),
3 x 5 = b(mod6),
m = 2(mod 3), etc.
Relate to market days,
clock,shift duty, etc.

(b) Fractions, decimals and approximations

(i) Basic operations on
fractions and decimals.

(ii) Approximations and
significant figures

Approximations should be realistic e.g. a
road is not measured correct to the
nearest cm. Include error.

(c) Indices

(i) Laws of indices.

(ii) Numbers in standard

Include simple examples of negative and
fractions indices.

e.g. 375.3 = 3.753 x 102
0.0035 = 3.5 x 10-3
Use of tables of squares,
square roots and reciprocals.

(d) Logarithms

(i) Relationship between
indices and
logarithms e.g.

y = 10k → K = log10 y

(ii) Basic rules of logarithms i.e.
log10 (pq) = log10P + log10q

log10 (p/q) = log10 P – log10q

log10Pn = nlog10P

(iii) Use of tables of logarithms,
Base 10 logarithm and
Antilogarithm tables.

Calculations involving
multiplication, division,
powers and square roots.

(e) Sequence

(i) Patterns of sequences.
Determine any term of a
given sequence.

*(ii) Arithmetic Progression (A.P)
Geometric Progression (G.P).

The notation Un = the nth term of
a sequence may be used.

Simple cases only, including word
problems. Excluding sum Sn.

(f) Sets

(i) Idea of sets, universal set,
finite and infinite sets, subsets,
empty sets and disjoint sets;
idea of and notation for union,
intersection and complement of

(ii) Solution of practical problems
involving classification, using
Venn diagrams.

Notations: ℰ,, , , , , P1
(the complement of P).
* Include commutative,
associative and distributive

The use of Venn diagrams
restricted to at most 3 sets.

**(g) Logical reasoning Simple statements. True and false
statements. Negation of

Implication, equivalence and valid

Use of symbols : ~, , , .

Use of Venn diagrams preferable.

READ ALSO: Latest waec syllabus for all subject 



(h) Positive and Negative
integers. Rational numbers

The four basic operations on
rational numbers

Match rational numbers with
points on the number line.

Notation: Natural numbers (N),
Integers (Z), Rational numbers

(i) Surds

Simplification and
Rationalisation of simple surds.

Surds of the form a and a b
 b
where a is a rational and b is a
positive integer.

(j) Ratio, Proportion
and Rates

Financial partnerships; rates of
work, costs, taxes, foreign
exchange, density (e.g. for
population) mass, distance,
time and speed.

Include average rates.

(k) Variation

Direct, inverse and partial
*Joint variations.

Application to simple practical

(l) Percentages

Simple interest, commission,
discount, depreciation, profit
and loss, compound interest
and hire purchase.

Exclude the use of compound
interest formula.


(a) Algebraic

(i) Expression of
statements in symbols.

(ii) Formulating algebraic
expressions from given

(iii) Evaluation of algebraic

eg. Find an expression for the
cost C cedis of 4 pears at x cedis
each and 3 oranges at y cedis each
C = 4x + 3y

If x = 60 and y = 20.
Find C.

(b) Simple operations on
algebraic xpressions.

(i) Expansion

(ii) Factorisation

e.g. (a+b) (c+d). (a+3) (c+4)

Expressions of the form

(i) ax + ay
(ii) a (b+c) +d (b+c)
(iii) ax2 + bx +c
where a,b,c are integers

(iv) a2 – b2

Application of difference of two
squares e.g.

492 – 472 = (49 + 47) (49 – 47)

= 96 x 2 = 192

(c) Solution of linear

(i) Linear equations in one variable

(ii) Simultaneous linear equations
in two variables.

(d) Change of subject of
a formula/relation

(i) Change of subject of a

(ii) Substitution

e.g. find v in terms of f and u
given that

1 1 1
— = — + —
ƒ u v

(e) Quadratic

(i) Solution of quadratic equations

(ii) Construction of quadratic
equations with given roots.

(iii) Application of solution of
quadratic equations in practical

Using ab = 0  either a = 0 or b
= 0
* By completing the square and
use of formula.
Simple rational roots only.
e.g. constructing a quadratic

Whose roots are –3 and 5/2

=> (x = 3) (x – 5/2) = 0.

(f) Graphs of Linear
and quadratic

(i) Interpretation of graphs,
coordinates of points, table
of values. Drawing
quadratic graphs and
obtaining roots from graphs.

(ii) Graphical solution of a
pair of equations of the

y = ax2 + bx + c and
y = mx + k

(iii) Drawing of a tangent to
curves to determine
gradient at a given point.

(iv) The gradient of a line

** (v) Equation of a Line

(i) the coordinates of the
maximum and minimum
points on the graph;

(ii) intercepts on the axes.
Identifying axis of
Symmetry. Recognising
sketched graphs.

Use of quadratic graph to
solve a related equation

e.g. graph of y = x2 + 5x + 6
to solve x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

(i) By drawing relevant
triangle to determine the

(ii) The gradient, m, of the line
joining the points

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y2 – y1
m =
x2 – x1

Equation in the form
y = mx + c or y – y1 = m(x-x1)

(g) Linear inequalities

(i) Solution of linear
inequalities in one variable
and representation on the
number line.

(ii) Graphical solution of linear
inequalities in two variables

Simple practical problems

** (h) Relations and functions

(i) Relations

(ii) Functions

Various types of relations
One – to – one,
many – to – one,
one – to – many,
many – to – many

The idea of a function.
Types of functions.
One – to – one,
many – to – one.

(i) Algebraic fractions

Operations on algebraic

(i) with monomial

(ii) with binomial

Simple cases only e.g.
1 1 x + y
— + — = —- (x  0, and y0)
x y xy

Simple cases only e.g.

1 + 1 = 2x – a – b
x –b x – a (x-a) (x – b)
where a and b are constants and
xa or b.

Values for which a fraction is
not defined e.g.
x + 3 is not defined for x = -3.


(a) Lengths and Perimeters

(i) Use of Pythagoras
theorem, sine and cosine
rules to determine
lengths and distances.

(ii) Lengths of arcs of
circles. Perimeters of
sectors and Segments.

*(iii) Latitudes and Longitudes.

No formal proofs of the theorem
and rules are required.

Distances along latitudes and
longitudes and their
corresponding angles.

(b) Areas
(i) Triangles and special
quadrilaterals – rectangles,
parallelograms and trapezia.

(ii) Circles, sectors and
segments of circles.

(iii) Surface areas of cube, cuboid,
cylinder, right triangular prisms
and cones. *Spheres.

Areas of similar figures.
Include area of triangles is
½ base x height and *1/2 abSin C.

Areas of compound shapes.
Relation between the sector of a
circle and the surface area of a

(c) Volumes

(i) Volumes of cubes, cuboid,
cylinders, cones and right
pyramids. * Spheres.

(ii) Volumes of similar solids

Volumes of compound shapes.


(a) Angles at a point

(i) Angles at a point add up to

(ii) Adjacent angles on a
straight line are supplementary.

(iii) Vertically opposite angles are

The results of these standard
theorems stated under contents
must be known but their formal
proofs are not required.
However, proofs based on the
knowledge of these theorems
may be tested.

The degree as a unit of measure.

Acute, obtuse, reflex angles.

(b) Angles and intercepts on parallel lines

(i) Alternate angles are equal.

(ii) Corresponding angles are equal.

(iii) Interior opposite angles are

*(iv) Intercept theorem

Application to proportional
division of a line segment.

(c) Triangles and other

(i) The sum of the angles of a
triangle is 2 right angles.

(ii) The exterior angle of a
triangle equals the sum of
the two interior opposite

(iii) Congruent triangles.

(iv) Properties of special
triangles – isosceles,
equilateral, right-angled.

(v) Properties of special
quadrilaterals –
parallelogram, rhombus,
rectangle, square,

(vi) Properties of similar

(vii) The sum of the angles of a

(viii) Property of exterior angles
of a polygon.

(ix) Parallelograms on the same
base and between the same
parallels are equal in area.

Conditions to be known but
proofs not required. Rotation,
translation, reflection and lines
of symmetry to be used.

Use symmetry where applicable.

Equiangular properties and ratio
of sides and areas.

(d) Circles

(i) Chords

(ii) The angle which an arc of a
circle subtends at the centre
is twice that which it
subtends at any point on the
remaining part of the

(iii) Any angle subtended at the
circumference by a diameter
is a right angle.

Angles subtended by chords in a
circle, at the centre of a circle.
Perpendicular bisectors of

(iv) Angles in the same segment
are equal

(v) Angles in opposite
segments are supplementary.

(vi) Perpendicularity of tangent and

(vii) If a straight line touches a circle
at only one point and from the
point of contact a chord is drawn,
each angle which this chord
makes with the tangent is equal
to the angle in the alternative

(e) Construction

(i) Bisectors of angles and line

(ii) Line parallel or perpendicular
to a given line.

(iii) An angle of 90º, 60º, 45º, 30º
and an angle equal to a given

(iv) Triangles and quadrilaterals
from sufficient data.

Include combination of these
angles e.g. 75º, 105º, 135º,

(f) Loci

Knowledge of the loci listed below and
their intersections in 2 dimensions.

(i) Points at a given distance from a
given point.

(ii) Points equidistant from two
given points.

(iii) Points equidistant from two
given straight lines.

(iv) Points at a given distance from
a given straight line.

Consider parallel and
intersecting lines.


(a) Sine, cosine and
tangent of an angle.

(b) Angles of elevation
and depression.

(c) Bearings

(i) Sine, cosine and tangent
of an acute angle.

(ii) Use of tables.

(iii) Trigonometric ratios of
30º, 45º and 60º.

*(iv) Sine, cosine and
tangent of angles
from 0º to 360º.

*(v) Graphs of sine and

Calculating angles of elevation and
depression. Application to heights
and distances.

(i) Bearing of one point from

(ii) Calculation of distances
and angles.

Without use of tables.

Related to the unit circle.

0º ≤ x ≥ 360º

Easy problems only

Easy problems only

Sine and cosine rules may be


(a) Statistics

(i) Frequency distribution.

(ii) Pie charts, bar charts,
histograms and frequency

(iii) Mean, median and mode
for both discrete and
grouped data.

(iv) Cumulative frequency
curve, median; quartiles
and percentiles.

(v) Measures of dispersion:
range, interquartile range,
mean deviation and
standard deviation from the

Reading and drawing simple
inferences from graphs and
interpretations of data in

Exclude unequal class interval.
Use of an assumed mean is
acceptable but nor required. For
grouped data, the mode should
be estimated from the histogram
and the median from the
cumulative frequency curve.

Simple examples only. Note
that mean deviation is the mean
of the absolute deviations.

(b) Probability

(i) Experimental and
theoretical probability.

(ii) Addition of probabilities
for mutually exclusive and
independent events.

(iii) Multiplication of
probabilities for
independent events.

Include equally likely events e.g.
probability of throwing a six
with fair die, or a head when
tossing a fair coin.

Simple practical problems only.
Interpretation of ‘and’ and ‘or’
in probability.


(a) Vectors in a Plane.

(i) Vector as a directed line
segment, magnitude,
equal vectors, sums and
differences of vectors.

(ii) Parallel and equal

(iii) Multiplication of a
vector by a scalar.

(iv) Cartesian components of
a vector.

Column notation. Emphasis on
graphical representation.


0 for the zero


(b) Transformation in the
Cartesian Coordinate

(i) Reflection

(ii) Rotation

(iii) Translation

The reflection of points and
shapes in the x and y axes and in
the lines x = k and y = k, where
k is a rational number.
Determination of the mirror
lines of points/shapes and their

Rotation about the origin.

Use of the translation vector.

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54 thoughts on “Latest WAEC Mathematics Syllabus For Waec 2023”

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  2. thanks for your help in this matter.
    May God richly bless you.

    but I need your help so that I can make a pass because Wassec is very top,so please help me to make a pass.

  3. i really appreciate ur help but i will like to be helped with math topics for novdec this year. thank u very much.

  4. Thanks you so much and I pray that by God’s grace I will pass in this subject this time around!! In God I trust I will make it….


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